Just off a dirt road in northwest Austin stand hundreds of 12-foot-tall tubes filled with green liquid. Nearly 15,000 gallons of algae grow inside the tubes, which are housed in a massive structure called a shadehouse. Lab workers have to climb ladders to peek inside and tend to the tiny organisms.
For decades, scientists have been trying to find ways to mass-produce algae as a viable source of fuel for vehicles. High costs and environmental factors have created insurmountable roadblocks. Now, researchers hope, a new facility at the University of Texas will help them move closer to that goal.
The UTEX Culture Collection of Algae.
“You need three things to grow algae: carbon dioxide, dirty water and sunshine,” said Michael E. Webber, an assistant professor in the U.T. department of mechanical engineering. “Texas has abundant supplies of all three.”
The university opened the shadehouse at the J. J. Pickle Research Campus three weeks ago with the objective of mass-producing algae for use as biofuel and other byproducts. AlgEternal Technologies, a company based in Austin, whose chief executive is Representative Rob Eissler, Republican of The Woodlands, collaborated with the UTEX Culture Collection of Algae — one of the largest such collections in the world — to develop the technology to grow the organisms for the project.
Another Texas company, OpenAlgae, works with the Center for Electromechanics at U.T. to extract oil from the organisms in a cost-effective manner.
Algae can be used to make products other than biofuel, including animal feed, food supplements and pharmaceuticals, said Jerry J. Brand, the Jack S. Josey professor in energy studies and the director of the UTEX Culture Collection of Algae.
Michael Jochum checked large tubes being used to grow algae.
Michael Jochum, AlgEternal’s chief scientist, said one potential key to successfully growing large quantities of algae for commercial use was the project’s Vertical Growth Module — those giant tubes. The algae grow in a closed system that uses the sun as its main source of energy and reduces production costs and the chances of predators or diseases attacking the algae. Growing the cultures vertically also means scientists can produce a lot of algae in a relatively small area.
“Algae has typically been grown horizontally in open ponds, where limiting factors like poor sunlight and contamination from outside organisms have prevented large-scale algae production,” Mr. Jochum said.
Labs containing the UTEX Culture Collection of Algae.
The UTEX Culture Collection of Algae works with AlgEternal to decide which kinds of culture should be grown and under what conditions, Mr. Brand said.
“They have the potential to play a role in reducing greenhouse gases and decreasing our dependence on crude oil,” he said. “Algae can grow much faster than plants. They don’t require as much water, and they can grow in places that plants can’t, like deserts.”
That is especially important for Texas because of the severe drought gripping the state.
Beyond the central problem of figuring out how to grow large amounts of algae economically, Mr. Brand said, is the complexity of working with vast amounts of the organisms. “As you scale up,” he said, “more unexpected problems arise.”
Author: LARA LAPIN
Photography: Spencer Selvidge for The Texas Tribune
Source: The New York Times / THE TEXAS TRIBUNE