Monthly Archives: September 2012

O maior número de ocorrências verificou-se no distrito do Porto. (Foto: Adriano Miranda)

Os 16.168 incêndios florestais que deflagraram este ano, até 31 de Agosto, queimaram 73.055 hectares, área que é cerca de nove vezes superior à da cidade de Lisboa, segundo dados provisórios hoje divulgados.

O relatório provisório de incêndios florestais do Instituto da Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas (ICNF) indica que, entre 1 de Janeiro e 31 de Agosto, a área ardida aumentou 81% face ao mesmo período do ano passado, quando arderam 40.146 hectares.

De acordo com o documento, nos primeiros oito meses do ano registaram-se 16.168 ocorrências de fogo, mais 1218 do que em igual período do ano passado.

O relatório, que ainda não inclui os incêndios que deflagraram na primeira semana de Setembro, adianta que o maior fogo de 2012, registado até 31 de Agosto, teve início a 18 de Julho no concelho de Tavira e afectou 21.437 hectares de espaços florestais, cerca de 29% da área florestal ardida este ano.

O documento indica também que o maior número de ocorrências se verificou este ano no distrito do Porto, com 3370 registos, dos quais cerca de 91% correspondente a fogachos.

Distritos como Aveiro, Braga, Vila Real e Viseu apresentam também um número de ocorrências superior ao milhar, sendo os fogachos superiores aos incêndios florestais, enquanto Guarda e Bragança são os únicos onde se registaram mais incêndios florestais.

Já o distrito de Faro é o que apresenta maior área ardida (22.181 hectares), sendo que 97% resulta do incêndio de Tavira.

Os incêndios florestais consumiram ainda, nos distritos de Braga e Bragança, 7975 e 10.716 hectares de floresta, respectivamente.

O relatório salienta que Portugal Continental esteve em grande parte do período de Janeiro e Abril, em situação de seca, o que contribuiu, em parte, para os elevados valores do número de ocorrências e área ardida registados nesses meses.

Em Fevereiro e Março, registaram-se 3698 e 4292 ocorrências de fogo, respectivamente, tendo-se situado a área ardida em Fevereiro nos 12.431 hectares e em Março nos 21.466.

Em Agosto, ocorreram 2.764 ocorrências e arderam 5215 hectares de espaços florestais.

O ICNF refere ainda que deflagraram, até 31 de Agosto, 93 grandes incêndios (quando a área afectada é igual ou superior a 100 hectares), correspondendo a 68% da área ardida.

Autor: Lusa
Fonte: Ecosfera – Público



Sea walls, marshes and trees in Brooklyn Bridge Park, part of efforts by New York City agencies to cope with rising seas. (Michael Kamber for The New York Times)

With a 520-mile-long coast lined largely by teeming roads and fragile infrastructure, New York City is gingerly facing up to the intertwined threats posed by rising seas and ever-more-severe storm flooding.

So far, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg has commissioned exhaustive research on the challenge of climate change. His administration is expanding wetlands to accommodate surging tides, installing green roofs to absorb rainwater and prodding property owners to move boilers out of flood-prone basements.

But even as city officials earn high marks for environmental awareness, critics say New York is moving too slowly to address the potential for flooding that could paralyze transportation, cripple the low-lying financial district and temporarily drive hundreds of thousands of people from their homes.

Only a year ago, they point out, the city shut down the subway system and ordered the evacuation of 370,000 people as Hurricane Irene barreled up the Atlantic coast. Ultimately, the hurricane weakened to a tropical storm and spared the city, but it exposed how New York is years away from — and billions of dollars short of — armoring itself.

“They lack a sense of urgency about this,” said Douglas Hill, an engineer with the Storm Surge Research Group at Stony Brook University, on Long Island.

Instead of “planning to be flooded,” as he put it, city, state and federal agencies should be investing in protection like sea gates that could close during a storm and block a surge from Long Island Sound and the Atlantic Ocean into the East River and New York Harbor.

Others express concern for areas like the South Bronx and Sunset Park in Brooklyn, which have large industrial waterfronts with chemical-manufacturing plants, oil-storage sites and garbage-transfer stations. Unless hazardous materials are safeguarded with storm surges in mind, some local groups warn, residents could one day be wading through toxic water.

“A lot of attention is devoted to Lower Manhattan, but you forget that you have real industries on the waterfront” elsewhere in the city, said Eddie Bautista, executive director of the New York City Environmental Justice Alliance, which represents low-income residents of industrial areas. “We’re behind in consciousness-building and disaster planning.”

Other cities are also tackling these issues, at their own pace.

New shoreline development around San Francisco Bay must now be designed to cope with the anticipated higher sea levels under new regional regulations imposed last fall. In Chicago, new bike lanes and parking spaces are made of permeable pavement that allows rainwater to filter through it. Charlotte, N.C., and Cedar Falls, Iowa, are restricting development in flood plains. Maryland is pressing shoreline property owners to plant marshland instead of building retaining walls.

Officials in New York caution that adapting a city of eight million people to climate change is infinitely more complicated and that the costs must be weighed against the relative risks of flooding. The last time a hurricane made landfall directly in New York City was more than a century ago.

Many decisions also require federal assistance, like updated flood maps from the Federal Emergency Management Agency that incorporate sea level rise, and agreement from dozens of public agencies and private partners that own transportation, energy, telecommunications and other infrastructure.

“It’s a million small changes that need to happen,” said Adam Freed, until August the deputy director of the city’s Office of Long-Term Planning and Sustainability. “Everything you do has to be a calculation of the risks and benefits and costs you face.”

And in any case, Mr. Freed said, “you can’t make a climate-proof city.”

So city officials are pursuing a so-called resilience strategy that calls for strengthening the city’s ability to weather the effects of serious flooding and recover from it.

Flooding Threat Grows

Unlike New Orleans, New York City is above sea level. Yet the city is second only to New Orleans in the number of people living less than four feet above high tide — nearly 200,000 New Yorkers, according to the research group Climate Central.

The waters on the city’s doorstep have been rising roughly an inch a decade over the last century as oceans have warmed and expanded. But according to scientists advising the city, that rate is accelerating, because of environmental factors, and levels could rise two feet higher than today’s by midcentury. More frequent flooding is expected to become an uncomfortable reality.

With higher seas, a common storm could prove as damaging as the rare big storm or hurricane is today, scientists say. Were sea levels to rise four feet by the 2080s, for example, 34 percent of the city’s streets could lie in the flood-risk zone, compared with just 11 percent now, a 2011 study commissioned by the state said.

New York has added bike lanes, required large buildings to track and reduce their energy use, banned the dirtiest home heating oils, and taken other steps to reduce the emissions that contribute to global warming. But with shoreline development that ranges from public beaches to towering high rises — and a complex mix of rivers, estuaries, bays and ocean — the city needs to size up the various risks posed by rising seas before plunging ahead with vast capital projects or strict regulations, city officials argue.

Yet the city’s plan for waterfront development dismisses any notion of retreat from the shoreline. Curbing development or buying up property in flood plains, as some smaller cities have done, is too impractical here, city officials say, especially because the city anticipates another million residents over the next two decades.

Rather, the city and its partners are incorporating flood-protection measures into projects as they go along.

Consolidated Edison, the utility that supplies electricity to most of the city, estimates that adaptations like installing submersible switches and moving high-voltage transformers above ground level would cost at least $250 million. Lacking the means, it is making gradual adjustments, with about $24 million spent in flood zones since 2007.

Some steps taken by city agencies have already subtly altered the city’s looks. At Brooklyn Bridge Park, a buffer between the East River and neighborhoods like Dumbo, porous riprap rock and a soft edge of salt-resistant grass have been laid in to help absorb the punch of a storm surge. Sidewalk bioswales, or vegetative tree pits that can fill up with rainwater to reduce storm water and sewage overflows and also minimize flooding, are popping up around the city.

Over all, the city is hoping to funnel more than $2 billion of public and private money to such environmental projects over the next 18 years, officials say.

“It’s a series of small interventions that cumulatively, over time, will take us to a more natural system” to deal with climate change, said Carter H. Strickland, the city’s environmental commissioner.

Planning experts say it is hard to muster public support for projects with uncertain or distant benefits.

“There’s a lot of concern about angering developers,” said Ben Chou, a water-policy analyst at the Natural Resources Defense Council.

New York planners have proposed requiring developers to assess the climate-change risks faced by new buildings so they can consider protection like retractable watertight gates for windows. But no such requirements have been imposed so far.

While some new buildings are being elevated or going above current required flood protections — like a new recycling plant on a Brooklyn pier and the Port Authority’s transit hub at the World Trade Center site — most new construction is not being adapted to future flood risks yet, industry representatives said.

Some experts argue that the encounter with Hurricane Irene last year and a flash flood in 2007 underscored the dangers of deferring aggressive solutions.

Klaus H. Jacob, a research scientist at Columbia University’s Earth Institute, said the storm surge from Irene came, on average, just one foot short of paralyzing transportation into and out of Manhattan.

If the surge had been just that much higher, subway tunnels would have flooded, segments of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive and roads along the Hudson River would have turned into rivers, and sections of the commuter rail system would have been impassable or bereft of power, he said.

The most vulnerable systems, like the subway tunnels under the Harlem and East Rivers, would have been unusable for nearly a month, or longer, at an economic loss of about $55 billion, said Mr. Jacob, an adviser to the city on climate change and an author of the 2011 state study that laid out the flooding prospects.

“We’ve been extremely lucky,” he said. “I’m disappointed that the political process hasn’t recognized that we’re playing Russian roulette.”

With more rain and higher seas, some envision more turmoil — like mile after mile of apartment buildings without working elevators, lights or potable water.

“That’s a key vulnerability,” said Rafael Pelli, a Manhattan architect who serves on a climate-change committee that advises the Department of City Planning. “If you have to relocate 10,000 people, how do you do that?”

Barriers to Block Tides

Some New Yorkers argue that the answer lies not in evacuation, but in prevention, like armoring city waterways with the latest high-tech barriers. Others are not so sure.

At a recent meeting of Manhattan community board leaders in Harlem, Robert Trentlyon, a resident of Chelsea, argued for sea gates.

A 2004 study by Mr. Hill and the Storm Surge Research Group at Stony Brook recommended installing movable barriers at the upper end of the East River, near the Throgs Neck Bridge; under the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge; and at the mouth of the Arthur Kill, between Staten Island and New Jersey. During hurricanes and northeasters, closing the barriers would block a huge tide from flooding Manhattan and parts of the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island and New Jersey, they said.

City officials say that sea barriers are among the options being studied, but others say such gates could interfere with aquatic ecosystems and with the flushing out of pollutants, and may eventually fail as sea levels keep rising.

And then there is the cost. Installing barriers for New York could reach nearly $10 billion.

There is more agreement on how to protect the subway system. Several studies have advised the Metropolitan Transportation Authority to move quickly to increase pumping capacity at stations, raise entrances and design floodgates to block water from entering.

In 2009, a commission warned that global warming posed “a new and potentially dire challenge for which the M.T.A. system is largely unprepared.”

Five years ago, a summer-morning deluge brought about 3 1/2 inches of rain in two hours and paralyzed the system for hours, stranding 2.5 million riders.

That prompted the transit agency to spend $34 million on improvements like raising some ventilation grates nine inches above sidewalks and building steps that head upward, before descending, at flood-prone stations. All the money came from the agency’s capital budget, which also pays for subway cars and buses.

“This is a vicious circle of the worst kind,” Projjal Dutta, the transportation agency’s director of sustainability, said of the financial effect. “You’re cutting public transportation, which cuts down greenhouse gases, to harden against climate change.”

Author: Mireya Navarro
Source: New York Times


A pedido de diversas companhias fotovoltaicas europeias, lideradas pela gigante alemã SolarWorld, a Comissão Europeia (CE) deu início nesta quinta-feira (6) às investigações que vão analisar se empresas solares chinesas são realmente favorecidas por subsídios considerados ilegais pela Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC).

De acordo com a aliança das companhias europeias, EU ProSun, os preços dos painéis fotovoltaicos caíram 75% entre 2008 e 2011 graças à pressão dos produtos chineses, que estariam sendo vendidos abaixo do valor de mercado – prática conhecida como dumping.

O presidente da EU ProSun, Milan Nitzschke, declarou à agência Reuters que se nada for feito o setor se transformará em um monopólio chinês. Atualmente, os painéis chineses ocupam 60% do mercado europeu.

O Ministério de Comércio da China afirmou que vê a investigação com “muito pesar” e que qualquer restrição aos seus produtos colocará em risco a expansão de uma economia de baixo carbono.

“Restringir os painéis solares chineses não vai apenas ferir os interesses da China ou da Europa, mas atrapalhará o desenvolvimento do setor global de energias limpas”, disse Shen Danyang, porta-voz do Ministério de Comércio.

O começo da investigação europeia é apenas o mais novo capítulo de uma briga que começou em maio, quando o Departamento do Comércio dos Estados Unidos (DOC) impôs taxas sobre produtos solares chineses devido às políticas de subsídios da China. Em alguns casos, os tributos chegam a 250%.

As companhias europeias cobraram por medidas semelhantes da União Europeia, que podem vir a ser tomadas se a CE comprovar a prática de dumping.

Autor: Fabiano Ávila
Fonte: Instituto CarbonoBrasil


The Columbia River near the John Day Dam, east of the city of The Dalles, Ore. A Vancouver-based resource company has admitted effluent from its mining and smelting operations in southeast B.C. has polluted the Columbia River across the U.S. border in Washington state for more than 100 years. (AP Photo/Rick Bowmer, File)

VANCOUVER – There used to be a beach in Washington state called Black Sand Beach.

Only it wasn’t sand that lined the banks of the Columbia River. It was slag, a pebbly waste laden with arsenic, mercury, lead and an alphabet soup of other metals left over from processing zinc at a smelter upstream, across the border in British Columbia.

The black sand has been hauled away, and on the eve of a lawsuit against smelter operator Teck Resources Ltd. for environmental damage caused by pollution from its plant in Trail, B.C., the Vancouver-based mining giant has admitted that effluent from the smelter has polluted the Columbia River in Washington state for more than a century.

Specifically, the company made a legal admission that: “Trail discharged solid effluent, or slag, and liquid effluent into the Columbia River that came to rest in Washington state, and from that material, hazardous materials under (U.S. environmental laws) were released into the environment,” Dave Godlewski, vice-president of environment and public affairs for Teck American, said in a telephone interview.

The discharges date from 1896 to 1995.

“That’s what we’ve agreed to. We’ve not talked about the amount of the release. We’ve not talked about the impacts of those releases. We’ve just agreed that there has been a release in the U.S.,” Godlewski said.

For the state Department of Ecology, the admission is a major victory in what has been a long, drawn-out fight.

“It’s very good news for us,” said spokeswoman Jani Gilbert. “It means that everyone is accepting the science… and we’re just closer in the process to getting some resolution of this.”

When Teck American, the U.S. subsidiary of Teck Resources, cleaned up Black Sand Beach two years ago, they hauled away 9,100 tonnes of slag.

The lawsuit brought by the Colville Confederated Tribes claims that 145,000 tonnes has been dumped directly into the river, where it has flowed downstream and settled on the riverbed. Bottom-feeding aquatic species eat it and the metals begin their journey up the food chain.

“It changes the ecosystem,” Gilbert said.

The lawsuit claims the metals have contaminated the surface water, ground waters and sediments of the upper Columbia River and Lake Roosevelt, the reservoir created by the Grand Coulee Dam. The 5,700-square-kilometre Colville reservation borders the Columbia River.

The cost of cleaning up the contamination has been pegged as high as $1 billion, and the state wants Teck to bear that cost.

Teck said the agreement will likely lead to a court judgment in favour of the plaintiffs, however, the court has yet to decide the extent of any injuries that may have resulted and what — if any — damages the company will have to pay.

In 2004, the EPA ordered Teck to conduct studies on the effects of heavy metals from the Trail smelter south of the border. Teck fought that order all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court, which refused to hear their case.

In the meantime, Teck entered a voluntary agreement with the EPA in 2006 to begin studies. Those assessments, which will determine the question of legal liability and damages, continue and are expected to be complete by 2015.

“It will assess what the real risk to human health and the environment is, and ultimately if that risk is unacceptable to the EPA… how will we mitigate those risks,” Godlewski said.

Over the past few decades, Teck has invested more than a billion dollars into environmental improvements and in 1996 stopped dumping slag into the river. Just last year, the company said it would invest another $210 million to increase capacity of an electronic waste recycling operation at its zinc smelter and hydroelectric plant in Trail.

The company has argued that it alone cannot be held responsible for the environmental damage in the Columbia River, and on Monday said it “estimates that the compensable value of any damage will not be material.”

Godlewski said studies have shown that water in the Upper Columbia River meets the quality standards in both Canada and the U.S., beaches are safe for recreational activities, and fish in the river are as safe or safer to eat than fish in other waterways in Washington state.

But the ghosts of the company’s environmental past continue to haunt it today.

A study by Environment Canada a couple of years ago confirmed that groundwater had been tainted by metals that leached from old waste dumps from the 1950s to the 1980s. That groundwater was making its way into the Columbia River, and Environment Canada ordered a remediation plan.

Gilbert said the admission by Teck is precedent-setting, but the company said the major issue of the lawsuit — whether or not the U.S. authorities have jurisdiction over a company operating fully in Canada in compliance with Canadian regulations in place at the time — has not been resolved.

“I think the question really is a much broader one than just the Upper Columbia River and needs to be answered,” he said.

“These sorts of questions are going to be more and more prevalent over time, as people measure wind-borne or aerial-borne pollution from China coming to the United States, the whole question of greenhouse gases… as well as water-borne contaminants crossing borders. It’s a part of the law that has really not been explored that much.”

Author: Dene Moore, The Canadian Press
Source: The Huff Post Green


O modelo foi criado para a montadora francesa Renault e segue a linha dos modelos compactos, que têm ganhado força nas grandes cidades mundiais

Carro elétrico da Renault: Carro teria a capacidade de gerar energia a partir do Sol e do reaproveitamento da energia cinética das frenagens

O designer japonês Charlie Nghiem projetou o carro elétrico Renault Circular Economy 4L. O veículo conseguirá produzir mais energia do que consome.

O modelo foi criado para a montadora francesa Renault. Ele segue a linha dos modelos compactos, que têm ganhado força nas grandes cidades mundiais.

Segundo o projeto de Charlie Nghiem, o carro produz a energia necessária para o seu consumo e ainda consegue armazenar o excedente para o compartilhamento em rede. Assim, ele pode contribuir para a geração da energia elétrica consumida por uma comunidade.

Para isso, o carro teria a capacidade de gerar energia a partir do Sol e do reaproveitamento da energia cinética das frenagens. Ele também usa sensores que transformam o calor em energia.

Com isso, o carro consegue produzir muito mais do que o necessário para o seu consumo. Dessa forma, ele também se torna um fornecedor de eletricidade, que pode ser canalizada por uma comunidade de moradores da vizinhança, por exemplo.

O carro também deve ser equipado com duas baterias. Uma delas mantém o carro em funcionamento. A segunda armazena o excedente para que a energia seja compartilhada em uma rede comunitária.

O sistema de produção continua em funcionamento até quando o carro está parado. Portanto, ele nunca é um elemento passivo de consumo. Sempre gera e troca energia com a rede.

Autor: Vanessa Daraya (info)
Fonte: Exame


Farmers have been forced to increase amount of chemicals as the sea lice parasite becomes resistant to treatment

Scottish salmon ready to be transferred to a new cage at a fish farm on Orkney in Scotland. Photograph: Doug Houghton/Alamy

Scottish fish farmers have been forced to use record amounts of highly toxic pesticides to combat underwater parasites that prey on salmon, raising fears of significant damage to the marine environment.

Data released by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (Sepa) shows a 110% increase in the use of chemicals to treat sea lice in the past four years, mainly because the parasite is becoming resistant to treatment. During that same period, however, salmon production has increased only by 22%, to 158,000 tonnes.

The agency said it was not carrying out any studies into the impact of the chemicals on the marine environment, but added that there was no evidence of any cumulative damage from increasing use of pesticides.

Richard Dixon, director of the environment group WWF Scotland and a Sepa board member, said the figures were worrying. The Scottish government and salmon industry plan to increase output by 50% by 2020, suggesting that there will be even greater use of toxic treatments against sea lice in future.

Urging the industry to cut chemical use, Dixon said: “News that the use of some pesticides has jumped in recent years is a worry and urgently needs addressing. It is doubly concerning as the industry is still in the process of expanding. Expansion of the industry should be predicated on the reduction in chemicals released.”

Don Staniford, a campaigner who was given the data by Sepa, and who has previously been deported from Canada for his activities against its fish farming industry, said he believed the increase breached the UK’s legal duties to protect the marine environment. “Instead of reducing chemical use, Sepa has shamefully sanctioned a doubling in the use of toxic chemicals which are known to kill lobsters and other shellfish,” he said.

The chemicals used are highly toxic to many marine species, especially crustaceans. The treatments use organophosphates, which attack the nervous system of sea lice and teflubenzuron, which interferes with their ability to grow shells. Marine scientists have shown the chemical is extremely threatening to young lobsters, crabs and prawns, Staniford said.

The salmon industry is expected to keep use of the toxins under strict control but has seen significant problems in Norway with the emergence of “superlice” resistant to normal treatments.

Ecologists and campaigners argue there is compelling evidence that some fish farms are failing to use chemicals safely. Sepa disclosed last week that while a large majority were satisfactory or excellent, 54 fish farms were rated as “poor” in 2011 – mostly for having too high chemical residues on the seabed, an increase on the 51 found to be poor or very poor in 2010.

The Salmon and Trout Association, which represents anglers, said last week that its analysis of Sepa’s seabed monitoring reports identified 137 cases since 2009 where salmon farms’ environmental impact had been “unsatisfactory”, with 64 rated as “borderline”. It said other freedom of information requests had uncovered numerous cases where chemicals were used illegally.

The Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation (SSPO), the main industry body, has disclosed consistent reports of significant sea lice problems. In west Shetland last February, sea lice infestation rates are 584% higher than the recommended levels and on average more than 250% higher.

While areas such as Orkney reported very low rates, in east Shetland, they were 222% above the threshold last spring. In northern Scotland, they were 150% higher both in mid-winter and in spring. In south western, Scotland, they were on average 79% higher last spring.Professor Phil Thomas, chairman of the SSPO, said the industry’s critics were guilty of making simplistic “tabloid statements”.

He added: “Are sea lice a problem? Yes. Because every salmon farmer in the world, indeed any farmer of any species, is always sensitive about the need to maintain low levels of parasites on their stock. It’s exactly the same issue as ticks on cattle and sheep. The buildup of resistance as a general issue is a problem for all interests.”

Sepa confirmed it had done no studies into the overall impact of these chemicals on the wider marine environment, or investigated whether the sharp increase was justified.

It insisted, however, that any adverse impacts from these chemicals were very localised and were very quickly dispersed in the sea. Sepa said it had a “robust” system of monitoring and enforcement to ensure breaches were minimal.

“Assessing medicinal use on a site specific basis is the most effective way of Sepa carrying out its duties, ensuring environmental protection and managing any impacts of the fish farming industry on Scotland’s coastal ecosystems. In this way, we can ensure that each licensed fish farm is operating within the limits prescribed,” a spokesman said.

“The effects of sea louse medicine residues on the environment are localised and relatively short lived.”

Author: Severin Carrell
Source: The Guardian


A Agência Ambiental Europeia (EEA, em inglês) afirmou na última sexta-feira (7) que o inverno ameno e a crise na produção industrial teriam sido as principais causas para a redução de 2,5% nas emissões na União Europeia em 2011. Se forem considerados apenas os 15 países europeus signatários do Protocolo de Quioto, a queda foi maior, 3,5%.

Segundo dados preliminares, as emissões em residências e no setor de serviços caíram 3,1%, e nos transportes, 1,8%.

A EEA aponta que o aumento no uso de fontes limpas de energia, como a eólica e a solar, também foi importante para a redução das emissões.

Nos últimos 20 anos, as emissões europeias passaram de 5,5 bilhões de toneladas de CO2 equivalente em 1990 para 4,7 bilhões em 2011.

A União Europeia possui a meta de reduzir em 20% as emissões até 2020 com relação ao nível de 1990. No momento, já foi alcançado um corte de 17,5%, afirma a EEA.

Maiores detalhes sobre os resultados de 2011 devem ser apresentados em um relatório em outubro.

É esperado para o fim do ano também o anúncio da queda das emissões dos Estados Unidos. Em agosto, a Administração de Informação de Energia (EIA) divulgou a redução de 2,4% nas emissões do setor de energia norte-americano, resultado do inverno ameno e dos investimentos em tecnologias limpas.

Autor: Fabiano Ávila
Fonte: Instituto CarbonoBrasil


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