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Uma pesquisa sobre o uso de óxido de estanho e óxido de cobre, materiais semicondutores de alta sensibilidade e grande seletividade, bem como de sua aplicação no desenvolvimento de dispositivos para a medição de gases poluentes, foi apresentada durante o “Fronteras de la Ciencia – Brasil y España en los 50 años de la FAPESP”, evento que reuniu na semana passada na Espanha pesquisadores do Estado de São Paulo e de algumas das principais instituições espanholas de ensino e pesquisa.

O estudo, que resulta de uma parceria entre o Instituto de Química da Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), em Araraquara, e o Departamento de Ciências de Materiais e Engenharia do Instituto de Tecnologia de Massachusetts (MIT), busca desenvolver materiais nanométricos para a fabricação de sensores voltados ao monitoramento ambiental e industrial.

Os resultados apresentados fazem parte do projeto “Avanços em óxidos semicondutores nanoestruturados para sensores de gás”, conduzido no Centro Multidisciplinar para o Desenvolvimento de Materiais Cerâmicos – um Centro de Pesquisa, Inovação e Difusão (CEPID) da FAPESP.

O estudo é coordenado pelo professor José Arana Varela, que também é diretor-presidente do Conselho Técnico-Administrativo da FAPESP e falou ao público na Universidade de Salamanca e também na Casa do Brasil, em Madri.

Na Unesp, os pesquisadores envolvidos, sob coordenação de Varela, têm a missão de sintetizar esses materiais e preparar amostras, cujas análises são feitas por pesquisadores do Departamento de Ciências de Materiais e Engenharia do MIT, sob coordenação do professor Harry Tuller.

“A interação entre os dois grupos tem sido extremamente importante, porque conseguimos acelerar os resultados obtidos pelas pesquisas nas duas instituições”, disse Varela à Agência FAPESP.

De acordo com a pesquisa, materiais desenvolvidos a partir de nanocompósitos apresentam alterações em sua estrutura e suas superfícies se tornam mais sensíveis e seletivas, fator de extrema importância no caso da detecção de gases presentes na atmosfera.

“Esse é o melhor exemplo de um tipo de aplicação para esses materiais nanoestruturados. Estamos estudando como melhorar sua sensibilidade, para que tenham respostas mais rápidas e precisas, afinal o sensor em questão deverá ser voltado para a detecção, na atmosfera, de gases maléficos à saúde”, disse Varela.

A pesquisa já demonstrou a sensibilidade desses materiais – semióxidos e semicondutores – e também a importância de se obter uma superfície maior, que apresente mais contato com o gás que está sendo medido.

“Quando o gás entra em contato com a superfície, muda a resistência elétrica do material, e com base nessa alteração física podemos identificar a quantidade de gás presente durante a análise”, explicou Varela.

O parâmetro para essa medida é obtido usando-se um gás neutro e estabelecendo um nível de condutividade. Outro tipo de gás, ao passar pelo dispositivo, modifica as condições sensíveis e seletivas do sensor, permitindo verificar se há aumento ou diminuição do tipo de gás que está sendo medido.

“Obtivemos um fator de sensibilidade de até mil vezes a capacidade do material, mas precisamos controlar todas as suas condições para que possa haver reprodutibilidade dos resultados das pesquisas. O passo seguinte será o desenvolvimento de um dispositivo que mantenha a sensibilidade e a seletividade apontadas em laboratório”, disse Varela.

O material deverá ser objeto de patente internacional, com créditos divididos entre a Unesp e o MIT. “Há demanda para esse tipo de aplicação na indústria, pois os sensores atualmente disponíveis não apresentam sensibilidade tão alta”, disse.

Autor: Samuel Antenor – Agência FAPESP
Fonte: Instituto Carbono Brasil
Original: http://goo.gl/Z66Qo


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The Antarctic ozone hole reached its largest size for the season on 22 September (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center)

The seasonal hole in the ozone layer above the Antarctic this year was the second smallest in two decades, but still covered an area three times the size of Australia, say US experts.

The average size of the Earth’s protective shield was 17.9 million square kilometres, according to satellite measurements by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and NASA.

“It happened to be a bit warmer this year high in the atmosphere above Antarctica, and that meant we didn’t see quite as much ozone depletion as we saw last year, when it was colder,” says Jim Butler of NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory.

The Antarctic ozone hole, which forms in September and October, reached its largest size for the season – 21 million square kilometres – on 22 September.

In comparison, the largest ozone hole recorded to date was one of 29.8 million square kilometres in the year 2000.

The ozone layer – which helps protect the Earth from potentially dangerous ultraviolet rays that can cause skin cancer and cataracts – began developing holes on an annual basis starting in the 1980s due to chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs.

CFCs, once commonly used in refrigerators and aerosol cans, now are almost non-existent thanks to an international treaty signed on 16 September 1987, amid global concern over widening holes in the ozone layer.

Still, it could take another decade before scientists detect early signs that the ozone over the Antarctic is returning, says NOAA.

The ozone layer above Antarctica likely will not return to its early 1980s state until about 2060, according to NASA scientist Paul Newman.

Author: Reuters
Source: ABC Science
Original: http://goo.gl/j7UEf


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A avenida da Liberdade é um dos eixos mais poluídos da Europa. (Foto: PÚBLICO/arquivo)

Estudo da Universidade Nova concluiu que os níveis de poluição baixaram após as alterações no Marquês, mas é cedo para certezas.

Um estudo realizado por investigadores da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, revelado ontem, concluiu que os níveis de poluição da Avenida da Liberdade diminuíram depois das alterações na circulação rodoviária no Marquês de Pombal.

O estudo mostra uma redução dos níveis médios diários das partículas inaláveis e de dióxido de azoto, não se registando quaisquer ultrapassagem do valor-limite diário, após 16 de Setembro, quando na primeira quinzena do mesmo mês o valor limite foi ultrapassado oito vezes. Os dados apresentados defendem que os níveis de partículas inaláveis baixaram 32% e os de dióxido de azoto apresentaram uma redução de 19%.

O estudo analisou também o perfil horário das concentrações médias (que retirou os fins-de-semana e os dias de precipitação registados entre 24 e 28 de Setembro, uma vez que a precipitação actua como “”lavagem” da atmosfera que reduz naturalmente os níveis de poluição”, registando mudanças não só nos valores, mas também no perfil de concentrações. Assim, antes da intervenção na rotunda do Marquês de Pombal, os maiores níveis de concentração de partículas ocorriam entre as 20h e as 23h, com valores a rondar os 65 µg/m³ (microgramas por metro cúbico) durante este intervalo.

Depois das alterações registou-se uma diminuição média de 20 µg/m³, nunca tendo ultrapassado os registos anteriores. O pico de concentração passou a ser entre as 8h e as 13h, e não entre as horas de ponta da manhã e da tarde.

No que respeita aos níveis de dióxido de azoto, o período de pico actual ultrapassa os valores anteriores. No período precedente às obras no Marquês de Pombal, o pico ocorria por volta das 17h, com valores que ultrapassavam os 100 µg/m³. Depois da nova rotunda, o valor mais alto alterou-se para o período compreendido entre as 6h as 8h, ultrapassando os valores anteriores em igual período, mas nunca a linha dos 100 µg/m³.

O estudo observou também outras zonas para além da Avenida da Liberdade, para determinar se esta diminuição na poluição atmosférica será local (e por isso relacionada com as alterações na circulação da rotunda e área circundante) ou se a diminuição seria generalizada. Assim, analisaram-se as estações de monitorização da qualidade do ar dos Olivais e de Entrecampos. Ambas apresentaram uma redução das partículas inaláveis e dos níveis de dióxido de azoto. “Se olharmos para os dados em bruto houve uma redução nos Olivais, Entrecampos e na zona da Avenida. No entanto, se filtrarmos esses valores [correspondentes aos níveis de dióxido de azoto] e os analisarmos retirando-lhes os dias em que ocorreu precipitação e os fins-de-semana, a redução limita-se à Avenida, o que pode significar que há uma relação com as obras que abrangeram não só o Marquês e o novo regime de circulação na Avenida da Liberdade”, esclarece Pedro Gomes, do Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, e um dos autores no estudo, em relação aos níveis de dióxido de azoto.

Pedro Gomes alerta ainda que esta análise tem um carácter muito preliminar e que carece “dos dados de tráfego rodoviário registados nesta zona e da validação dos dados de qualidade do ar parte da Comissão de Coordenação e Desenvolvimento Regional de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo, gestora da rede de monitorização de qualidade do ar”, acrescentando que deverá ser feito um novo estudo, “talvez em Dezembro, altura em que haverá um balanço da câmara desta experiência”. O estudo já foi enviado para a câmara.

Autor: Liliana Pascoal Borges
Fonte: Ecosfera
Original: http://goo.gl/y8EBQ


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(Reuters) – Italy’s main steel plant faces a possible partial shutdown if a magistrate rules its fumes and dust particles endanger the health of thousands of workers and nearby residents.

The imminent decision follows a lengthy probe into whether dioxin and other chemicals pumped from the ILVA plant have caused an abnormal increase in cancer cases and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in the southern port of Taranto.

Riva Group, which includes ILVA, could not immediately be reached for comment but has said it respects all environmental regulations and that emissions from the plant are well within legal limits, according to its websites. (www.rivagroup.com) (www.ilvataranto.com)

ILVA, a major employer in the impoverished Puglia region, is one of Europe’s biggest steel plants and produced 8.5 million tonnes in 2011, nearly 30 percent of total Italian output.

The prospect of a ruling has prompted Prime Minister Mario Monti’s government to summon local politicians and officials to a meeting on Thursday to find ways of resolving pollution issues while keeping jobs as Italy slips ever further into an economic recession.

“We hope a solution will be found to make the plant more environment-friendly,” said Lunetta Franco, the head of Taranto’s branch of Italian environmentalist group Legambiente.

“We understand the industrial needs but the issues of health cannot be ignored,” said Franco, who has campaigned to reduce pollution at ILVA, owned by the wealthy Riva family.

About 4,000-5,000 people work at the most polluting section of the plant, which risks being shut. This includes a coke making plant, a blast furnace and an agglomeration unit, union members and company sources told Reuters.

The whole site employs between 15,000 and 20,000 people and represent a major source of income for the Taranto area.

It is one of the few large industrial plants in southern Italy, which is much less industrialized than the country’s wealthy North.

Unemployment in Puglia was 15.6 percent in the first quarter of 2012, above the national average and twice as much as in the northern regions of Lombardy and Piedmont. ILVA workers marched against the plant’s possible closure earlier this year.

A study requested by local magistrates linked 386 deaths among the local population to ILVA’s fumes in 13 years. The majority were living in two low-income neighborhood very close to the plant.

The study also showed a higher-than-average number of tumors among ILVA workers.

“Analyses have revealed a grave situation,” Franco added. “They have shown a link between the deaths and plant pollution.”

CRUCIAL VERDICT

The investigation, which started a couple of years ago, is expected to close by the end of July.

In a sign that things are heating up for ILVA, the region of Puglia rushed through a new law on Tuesday, immediately nicknamed Salva-ILVA (Save ILVA), on tightening controls in areas of high environmental risk, including Taranto.

Puglia’s governor Nichi Vendola, the leader of Italy’s leftist-green party Sinistra Ecologia Liberta (Left, Ecology, Freedom), said he is dreaded a stoppage at ILVA.

“Not even for a minute could I imagine the shutdown of a plant which gives a living to almost 20,000 people,” he was quoted as saying in daily Corriere della Sera on Monday.

If the new environment protection law is respected, there would be no need to close the steel plant, trade unions say.

“We don’t want to face a choice between job and health,” Marco Bentivogli, National Secretary of the metalworkers union FIM-CISL, told Reuters.

“We believe that ILVA should continue to invest in reducing pollution, in cutting dioxin. There is a lot of work to be done. But the plant should remain operating,” he said.

(Additional reporting by Massimiliano di Giorgio in Rome; Editing by David Cowell)

Author: Svetlana Kovalyova
Source: REUTERS
Original: http://goo.gl/1qP3P


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In this April 28, 2011 photo, D.C. Orr, a city councilman in Libby, Mont., stands in the middle of a storage area, where bark and wood chips contaminated with undetermined levels of lethal asbestos were stored. Test results from huge piles of woodchips that were being sold from a Montana Superfund site for use in landscaping show they contain minimal levels of asbestos, according to a report Friday Jan. 13, 2012.The findings appear to offer a rare bit of relief for this town of Libby, where wide (AP).

BILLINGS, Mont. (AP) — Grass and freshly planted trees are sprouting in a new town park that sits atop the site of a vermiculite plant that once spewed asbestos dust across the mountain community of Libby — a welcome dose of normalcy for a city that has become synonymous with lung disease and death.

It’s a major milestone for the mining town of about 3,000 people near the Canadian border where an estimated 400 people to date have been killed by asbestos exposure. More than 1,700 have been sickened. Lethal dust from the WR. Grace and Co. plant and the company’s nearby mine once blanketed the town, and asbestos illnesses are still being diagnosed more than two decades after the mine was shuttered.

Following a 12-year cleanup, Riverfront Park hosted a wedding last weekend. Officials said another wedding and a blues festival are scheduled for early August. For Mayor Doug Roll, the federal government’s recent transfer of the park to the city offers a symbolic break from Libby’s lethal past.

“It’s sort of like Phoenix rising from the ashes,” Roll said. “We’ve had a lot of negative stuff going on and we’re trying to turn that around.”

But the park — the first major finished piece of a federal cleanup that so far has cost $447 million — carries a significant asterisk: Because of the difficulty of removing all the asbestos-containing vermiculite from the highly-contaminated site, federal regulators say some of the dangerous material remains.

For three decades, the Grace plant was used to stockpile vermiculite from the mine before the material was exported by rail across the U.S. for use as attic insulation. The town’s ball fields are right next door; Libby residents who today battle asbestos disease tell stories of playing in the plant’s piles of raw vermiculite as children.

Just 18 inches beneath the park’s surface beneath a cap of clean soil is a fluorescent orange barrier, a warning to those who dig on the site in the future that they face potential asbestos exposure.

It’s one of many reminders that Libby’s tragedy has yet to run its course.

The town remains under a first-of-its kind public health emergency declaration issued by Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson in 2009. The deaths are expected to continue for decades due to the long latency of asbestos-related diseases.

Agency scientists still have not settled on a safe level of human exposure to the type of asbestos found in the Kootenai Valley. That means hundreds of homes and businesses cleaned once could face additional work.

Almost a million cubic yards of soil and contaminated material have been removed from Libby to date. Federal regulators say they hope to have that phase completed in the next three to five years. The end date is uncertain, pending the results of a risk assessment to determine safe levels of exposure.

The assessment could be finished sometime next year, said the EPA’s Libby team leader, Victor Ketellapper. But citing the potency of Libby’s asbestos, independent scientists reviewing the document already have questioned whether it goes far enough to protect human health. If they push for changes, that could further delay completion of the assessment — and the cleanup.

Jeff Camplin, an environmental safety consultant who has been working with activists in Libby, said the uncertain timetable means the EPA has pushed forward without enough scientific grounding to guide its cleanup.

“They just seem to be throwing money at the issue,” said Camplin. “There’s not a good handle on what is the scope of the problem, what is the overall master cleanup plan.”

Camplin and others, including a former member of the town council, have warned that EPA contractors are inadvertently cross-contaminating the town in the rush to make it safer. They contend that earlier this year the contractors unknowingly pulled up steel parking barriers at Riverfront Park made from sections of pipe used by Grace to transport vermiculite, spilling raw material from the pipes and fouling the site yet again.

EPA’s manager of the park site, Rebecca Thomas, rejected the claim, saying the pipes were neither contaminated nor in contact with contaminated soil. She said she did not know the history of the pipes themselves.

It wouldn’t be the first time vermiculite turned up in an area already treated by the EPA. Since the agency descended on Libby in 1999 after media reports about rising numbers of deaths, the EPA and Grace have revisited the former export plant site at least six times to remove vermiculite or carry out other cleanup actions.

As recently as late May, vermiculite was found during excavation to install a communication line through the 17-acre park. Thomas said all of the vermiculite found was either removed or covered with clean material.

“We have utmost confidence that everything in the top 18 inches is clean,” she said. “There are areas where it was left in place at low concentrations when it was found. It just doesn’t make sense to just dig and dig and dig.”

The plant site is one of two pieces of the cleanup finished so far. Work on the site of a second W.R. Grace plant was completed this summer.

Six targets are pending: The mine itself; Libby’s houses, commercial buildings and public properties; a contaminated Stimson Lumber mill site; a Burlington Northern Santa Fe rail line used to transport vermiculite out of town; the nearby town of Troy; and state highways in the area.

Most already have seen some vermiculite removals or other cleanup work, including almost 1,700 houses. The sprawling open-air mine outside of town — still controlled by Grace — is at the earliest stage of cleanup. Ketellapper said interim work there could begin as early as August.

Hazards still exist, particularly for excavators, landscapers and gardeners who dig in the dirt. But compared to when the mine was operating, Ketellapper said the air in Libby is “orders of magnitude” cleaner than it once was.

“When EPA first got here there were piles of highly-contaminated material on the surface. Piles of waste material on the ball fields,” he said, adding that it’s now rare for asbestos to be detected during air monitoring tests.

During the cleanup of the park site, Mayor Roll said he sat by the Kootenai one day considering Libby’s future.

“The river was so calming it was weird. We turned something ugly into something beautiful. That will continue to go on,” he said.

Author: Matthew Brown
Source: The Huff Post Green / AP
Original: http://goo.gl/SkhCx


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KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia — For much of the year, the Petronas Towers, the world’s tallest twin buildings, are gleaming landmarks visible far from the city center here. But last weekend, the 88-story structures were shrouded in a smoky haze that prompted doctors to warn people with respiratory problems to wear masks.


The Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur were engulfed in a haze last week from fires in Indonesia. (Mark Baker/Associated Press)

The haze, attributed mostly to fires burning on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, has become a recurring summer blight, engulfing parts of Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei and Singapore, and leaving a litany of health and economic costs in its wake.

Experts say that some progress has been made in the 15 years since the Association of Southeast Asian Nations first pledged to combat the problem, after one of the worst forest fires in the region’s history. That fire was traced to the clearing of land by burning in Indonesia.

But experts say far more must be done before the area will see clearer skies, including better law enforcement and international cooperation.

The haze that hit Kuala Lumpur last weekend was the worst so far this year, according to Halimah Hassan, director general of Malaysia’s Department of Environment, with readings on the air pollution index exceeding the threshold for unhealthy.

By Monday, winds had begun pushing the haze north. Asean’s Web site on the haze reported that the smoke was also affecting southern Thailand early last week.

The skies over Kuala Lumpur were clearer on Friday, and pollution levels in the capital had dropped to mostly moderate levels. But unhealthy levels were reported in Miri, in Sarawak State, on the island of Borneo, because of a peat fire that started in the area on Thursday.

Ms. Halimah warned that the haze could continue to be a problem in the coming months, given predictions of dry weather and southwesterly winds until September.

The environment department has imposed a blanket ban on open fires in Malaysia and has increased efforts to control local sources of air pollution. However, Ms. Halimah said, fires in Indonesia were primarily responsible for pushing the air pollution index to unhealthy levels.

A major source of smoke, researchers say, are fires set on palm oil and rubber plantations, primarily in Sumatra, to get rid of old trees and to clear land for new plantations.

The 1997 forest fires in Indonesia smothered Southeast Asia in its worst haze in decades, with another severe episode occurring in 2005, said Euston Quah, a professor of environmental economics at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore.

The 1997 haze cost Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and southern Thailand $4.5 billion, including from health costs and a decline in tourism, Mr. Quah said. In response, Asean members developed a Regional Haze Action Plan to monitor and combat the pollution caused by land and forest fires. In 2002, they signed the Asean Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution.

Ten years later, Indonesia remains the only country in the bloc not to have ratified the agreement. However, at an Asean meeting in May, environment ministers said that Indonesia had begun the process of ratification, according to a statement on the body’s Web site.

Mr. Quah said he believed that the Indonesian government was not ready to meet the terms of the agreement. For example, he said, it would have to demonstrate a speedy response from all levels of government when fires broke out, a challenging task in the huge archipelago.

At the May meeting, the Asean ministers noted that Indonesia had reduced the number of hot spots, areas with the potential for uncontrolled fires, but environmental experts say that better law enforcement is needed.

While clearing land by burning is now banned in Indonesia, Mr. Quah said he was not aware of a single case in which a plantation owner had been prosecuted for a fire set on his property. He said the government should also provide incentives for villagers to report fires before they get out of control.

“If they report fires early, then they should be rewarded, either with gifts in kind or money so that we can control the small fires quickly,” Mr. Quah said.

Malaysia has provided Indonesia with firefighting equipment and firefighters, while Singapore has supplied satellite-imaging equipment to detect hot spots, he said.

Kurnia Rauf, director of the forest fire control division in the Indonesian Forestry Ministry, said that tracking down the people responsible for illegal burning was difficult. “They set fires to open the area for planting because it’s much faster and easier,” he said.

He added that his division was trying to educate people about hot spot indicators. Local forestry officials were also leading ground checks, he said, and people could report hot spots to the forest fire control task force via cellphone.

Anthony Tan, executive director of the Center for Environment, Technology and Development, Malaysia, an independent research organization in Kuala Lumpur, urged a broad view of the problem. He said that while blame was typically directed at Indonesia, fires in other countries also contributed to the haze. “Asean as a bloc has to look at this problem as an Asean problem,” he said.

Sara Schonhardt contributed reporting from Jakarta, Indonesia.

Author: Liz Gooch
Source: The New York Times
Original: http://goo.gl/SnRAB


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Uma autoridade do governo chinês demandou nesta terça-feira (5) que as embaixadas estrangeiras no país parem de divulgar informações sobre a poluição do ar, afirmando que tais ações são contrárias a leis e convenções diplomáticas. O recado é especialmente direcionado para a embaixada norte-americana.

O nível da poluição do ar na capital chinesa varia, dependendo das condições de vento, por exemplo, mas todos os dias um coquetel de emissões de fuligem, gases, poeira e aerossóis cobre a cidade como um lençol bege.

Muitos residentes não acreditam nas leituras oficiais, que classificam muitas vezes a poluição como “branda”.

A embaixada dos Estados Unidos em Pequim instalou um ponto de monitoramento em seu telhado que divulga a cada hora a qualidade do ar através do Twitter. Os consulados norte-americanos em Xangai e Guangzhou oferecem o mesmo serviço.

Apesar da China ter anunciado que melhorou os padrões de monitoramento da qualidade do ar em janeiro, os dados oficiais muitas vezes são distantes dos publicados pela embaixada dos EUA.

Especialistas chineses criticam o método de monitoramento da embaixada, que só tem um ponto de coleta de amostras, como não sendo científico.

O ministro interino de Meio Ambiente, Wu Xiaoqing, foi além, afirmando que as medições estrangeiras são ilegais e devem parar. Porém, ele não citou abertamente os Estados Unidos.

“De acordo com a Convenção de Viena sobre Relações Diplomáticas (…) diplomatas estrangeiros devem respeitar e seguir as leis locais e não podem interferir em assuntos internos”, declarou Wu em uma coletiva de imprensa.

“O monitoramento e a divulgação das informações sobre a qualidade do ar na China envolvem o interesse público e é de responsabilidade do governo. Consulados estrangeiros na China estão assumindo essa função, o que não apenas vai contra a Convenção de Viena (…) como viola regras de proteção ambiental relevantes.”

O porta-voz do ministério de Relações Exteriores, Liu Weimin, pediu para que as missões diplomáticas respeitem as leis chinesas e parem de divulgar as leituras “especialmente na Internet”.

“Se as embaixadas estrangeiras querem coletar esse tipo de informação para a sua própria equipe e diplomatas, não há problemas. O que não podem é divulgar esses dados para o mundo”, disse Liu.

A embaixada norte-americana reconheceu em seu site que o equipamento que possui não pode monitorar o ar de toda a Pequim e, assim, não pode ser considerado uma leitura da qualidade do ar para a cidade inteira.

Apesar das críticas, Wu reconheceu que a qualidade do ar e a situação ambiental na China ainda é bastante precária, com mais de 10% dos rios monitorados sendo considerados altamente poluídos, por exemplo.

“O que precisa ser salva é a qualidade do ar, não a cara do governo. As autoridades ambientais devem parar de criticar e começar a agir para lidar com esse problema”, afirmou Zhou Rong, ativista do Greenpeace.

Traduzido por Fabiano Ávila

Autor: Ben Blanchard
Fonte: Instituto Carbono Brasil / Reuters
Original: http://goo.gl/qH4NW


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